Periodontology is the dental specialty that includes the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of diseases that affect the periodontium - the tissues that keep the tooth on the alevolar ridge: gum, bone, dento-alveolar ligament, cement and the tooth itself.
Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection of the periodontium. These microbial agents from the dental plaque attack and destroy the gums and bone, an action that results in the loss of the affected tooth. Periodontal disease - periodontitis as it is popularly called - evolves over a long period of time, but constantly and with devastating effects, from gingival retraction and tooth decay, to falling. The incipient symptoms are not always obvious to the patient - such as simple gingival bleeding, which has led to an increased incidence of the disease.
First of all, in order to prevent periodontal disease, the factors responsible for producing changes in the dento-periodontal tissue (inflammation, resorption) must be known.
Risk factors can be:
- bacterial plaque is the main determinant of periodontal disease that forms when oral hygiene is poor. Bacterial plaque is a soft, sticky, yellowish-white deposit made up of microorganisms that release toxins that lead to tissue inflammation.
- dental tartar - deposit of increased consistency adherent to the tooth surface, formed by mineralization of bacterial plaque
- incorrectly adapted prosthetic works
- dental crowding
- gnashing of teeth (bruxism)
- vicious habits - smoking, alcohol, drugs
- drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neurological, malignant tumors.
- heredity (genetic predisposition)
- nutritional deficiencies (hypovitaminosis A, C, B, PP, D)
- hematological and cardiovascular diseases
- endocrine disorders (thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, diabetes, puberty, pregnancy, menopause)
- immune deficiencies (AIDS, agranulocytosis)
In our clinic, we perform a complex periodontal rehabilitation treatment, which includes several stages:
- Drawing up a periodontal file (we can observe the evolution under treatment, and the patient becomes more motivated with the observation of concrete results, measuring the degree of gingival bleeding, measuring the depth of periodontal pockets and the degree of tooth mobility) and educating patients about optimal hygiene techniques. of the oral cavity.
- Initial therapy: oral cavity cleansing, professional hygiene, supra and subgingival descaling, root curettage, washing the gingival groove with gels and antiseptic solutions and local treatment with antibiotic-containing pastes.
- Secondary therapy: open field curettage, flap surgery, addition of bone and resorbable membrane. In the case of very mobile teeth, it may be necessary to immobilize with composite physiognomic rails. In this case, treatment with antibiotics in general is also associated.
- Tertiary therapy: the stage of supporting the results obtained through regular checks, remotivation of patients and their training on the most effective methods of sanitation and cleaning.
The treatment of periodontal diseases does not depend only on the experience and qualification of the dentist, an essential factor in the success of therapy is the sincere cooperation of the patient and his consistency in maintaining strict oral hygiene with regular checks and professional maintenance (every 2 months sanitation session - descaling , bristles, airflow). In the background, there are also anti-inflammatory treatments and vaccines, but they are the most helpful component, and by no means decisive in the treatment of periodontitis.
If periodontal therapy has been successful, it is necessary to continuously reassess periodontal status, in particular to identify areas where oral hygiene is not as effective as desired.