Pediatric dentistry is a medical field that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases in children. The dentition in a child is formed even before birth. At the age of 4 months at the earliest, the first milk teeth that erupt through the gums on the lower arch of the mouth are the central incisors, followed by the incisors in the upper part of the mouth. Although 20 deciduous teeth appear by age 3, the order of their appearance varies.
Permanent teeth appear by about 6 years of age, starting with molars and incisors in the lower part of the mouth. This process continues until about age 21. Adults have 28 permanent teeth or can reach 32
When a child's first baby teeth appear, parents should go to the dentist with them. This usually happens around the age of one year. The doctor can then check if the teeth have erupted correctly and that they are healthy. He can also answer parents' questions and advise them on a balanced diet and proper oral hygiene for their child.
By regularly visiting the dental clinic, your child will get used to dental examinations and will not be afraid of them. Check your child's teeth twice a year, and more often if necessary. It is important to go to the dentist when the child's teeth are completely healthy, because then the dentist and the child meet in a relaxed atmosphere and can get to know each other better. If the child needs treatment, it is easier to work with children who have had pleasant experiences in the dental office before. When your doctor regularly examines your teeth, he can detect abnormal changes earlier and prevent further damage.Baby teeth are very important for:
It is important to maintain the health of milk teeth. Launched caries, gum disease, dental nerve inflammation, bad habits can and usually even lead to problems that irreversibly affect the development of teeth. To ensure that your little one has healthy and functional teeth, the Albero Clinic offers the following services specially designed for the health of a child's smile.
The World Health Organization recommends four methods for the primary prevention of dental caries:– General and local fluoridation
The controlled use of fluoride has been shown to be the only trace mineral currently known to play an important role in the prevention of tooth decay. Fluoridation, carried out in the dental office, is a local fluoridation and consists in applying fluoride in the form of varnishes or gels directly to the surface of the teeth. Fluoridation is carried out only after the surfaces of the teeth have been properly disinfected by professional cleaning from dental plaque.– Food hygiene
When a child is about a year old, he should attend family meals and sometimes eat something in between meals. Parents should provide a balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, potatoes, and grains because they also promote dental health. Instead of sugary drinks, the child is better off drinking water or unsweetened tea.– Oral hygiene
Thorough oral hygiene is essential. Start brushing your teeth every day from the moment your first baby teeth appear. A pea-sized toothpaste with fluoride can be used to clean the teeth of children who can spit. At the age of 4-5 years, children should be able to brush their teeth on their own, twice a day under the supervision of their parents, up to 7 years old to be sure that they are brushing their teeth correctly. However, every child is different. The dentist can determine if he is good at brushing his teeth.– Tooth filling
On the occlusal surface (the one we chew) of the lateral teeth there is a relief, consisting of several protrusions (tubercles), limited by small holes (depressions and grooves). These depressions and grooves are places where caries usually develops in this place due to the specific persisting shape.
* This can be avoided by covering them with special materials. This process is called sealing.
Professional sanitation is a treatment that removes all deposits of bacterial plaque, supra- and subgingival calculus on the surface of the teeth. It forms mainly on the inner surfaces of the lower teeth, on the outer surfaces of the upper molars and in places where teeth are difficult to clean, such as with crowded teeth. Professional disinfection is carried out in 2 stages:
1 - Ultrasonic cleaning of plaque
2 - Rotational professional cleaning with professional toothpaste.
* To ensure a healthy and beautiful smile for your child, it is recommended to disinfect and descale once every 6 months!
Treatment of dental caries - dental caries is the most common disease in children. Due to their rapid development, if pedodontic treatment is not intervened in time, they can lead to premature loss of a dental element. On the other hand, due to the fact that the dentin of deciduous teeth is less hard, and the chamber in which the nerve is located is larger, it becomes infected much faster and a toothache appears.
Removal of dental nerve in temporary teeth - if caries has developed rapidly in depth and infected the nerve, it is recommended to remove it from the root canals and close the roots with absorbable calcium-based material. The processing of the canals of the deciduous teeth prevents the tooth from being removed, thereby offering the child the opportunity to eat from this side. It maintains the space required for a permanent tooth to erupt, promoting a harmonious positioning of the teeth in the dental arch.
Temporary tooth extraction - Although not an emergency, this problem should be addressed as soon as possible. If the temporary teeth are not removed, it can lead to the development of various dentoalveolar anomalies, such as crowding of teeth, a narrow dental arch, crossbite in the case of a permanent dentition formed. If the temporary tooth becomes mobile, and the permanent one continues to erupt, the temporary tooth falls out and the situation corrects itself.
Correction of bad habits - Incorrect bite in childhood is mainly due to the existing bad habits of children (sucking fingers, nipple, gnashing of teeth) and should be a wake-up call for parents. To correct malformations of the teeth (crowding of teeth, cross-bite, deep bite, etc.), they must be corrected in the early stages of development.
The adaptation of the child is the key to quality treatment. If a small patient himself sits in a chair, he is comfortable, he allows the doctor to carry out all the necessary manipulations, then the treatment will take place at the highest level, and the risk of complications will be minimal.
The correct mood of the child in many cases avoids the treatment of teeth in anesthesia (in a dream). It will be enough to use local anesthesia, sometimes in combination with sedation (nitrogen oxide).
The child to whom the approach has been found gets rid of fear of the dentist for life. So, in adulthood, he will turn to the doctor on time and tolerate the treatment of teeth is easy.
Adaptation should begin before the first visit to the clinic. And parents play a huge role in this
It is important to take into account that adaptation is not always possible! Yes, we will make every effort to cure the child's teeth in consciousness. However, there are situations when children are shown in anesthesia
nitrogen oxide or ZAS is a gas mixture of nitrogen oxide (N2O) and oxygen (O2), which is supplied through the nasal mask. This sweet inert gas is absorbed by light and in a short time gently and safely immerses the child in the related condition necessary for treatment, and at the end of treatment they are also quickly excreted and has no ace.
Mild sedation causes the minimum possible inhibition of consciousness that allows the child to relax in the dentist’s chair and being conscious to calmly perceive what is happening around, he can move, hear, understand and talk, and also tolerate dental treatment without anxieties and unrest, He will help the baby avoid psychological stress and fear of dental manipulations in time.
The use of sedation does not cause allergic reactions!
• Children over three years old.
• Children with moderate anxiety for dental treatment.
• Restless. Sachs allows you to increase the duration of treatment with comfort for the child by half.
• Children with hyperactivity syndrome.
• Children with a low threshold of pain sensitivity.
• with a small amount of treatment that fits in four visits.
Contraindications for sedation
• A child with impaired nasal breathing (colds, adenoiditis, sinusitis, exacerbation of allergic rhinitis)
• A baby with an overly pronounced fear of doctors (dentophobia) or a high level of anxiety above 5 points with a 10-point scale.
• If a child cannot communicate with a doctor (by virtue of age-older 3 years or a concomitant disease)
• If the child suffered a traumatic brain injury in 3 months (and later) to dental treatment
• Chronic otitis media in the aggravation stage
• Epilepsy, convulsive syndrome.
• With a significant amount of treatment, treatment with ZAS more than four visits causes negativity in children.
preparation for admission
- Do not feed the child two hours before the reception at the dentist (for some, some have nausea and vomiting). -
- Tell the doctor about any respiratory infections of the child that may prevent him from breathing through the mask and reduce the effectiveness of the drug.
- inform the doctor about the medications taken on the day of administration.
anesthesia or general anesthesia is a controlled unconscious state that allows dental lice without pain and uncomfortable sensations.
Testing to anesthesia
• non -contact children with other types of diagnostics are difficult;
• children with insurmountable difficulties in cooperation with a doctor, fear and anxiety - under the age of 3 years, when there is still no necessary perseverance and trust in strangers;
• General anesthesia is also necessary for children with a large amount of treatment to one visit;
• as well as children with special needs (for example, with autism or Down syndrome).
just before treatment accompanied by anesthesia, it is important to perform a number of studies:
• a general blood test and the determination of blood coagulation.
Before anesthesia, it is recommended to refrain from eating in 5 hours, with simple water 2 hours before the start of treatment, in order to prevent vomiting. A baby on breastfeeding up to 1 year - stop feeding 4 hours before the start of treatment over 1 year - stop feeding 6 hours before the start of treatment.
We also recommend that parents take care of comfortable clothes in advance - it should be soft and free so that the child is convenient to sleep in it, a small patient with his parents enters the office, is conveniently located (if desired in her mother’s hands) and in such A relaxed atmosphere inhales anesthesia and falls asleep.
During anesthesia, we conduct anesthesiological monitoring on the Harvard Standard, which allows you to track all the main indicators of the child’s life:
• pulsoximetry that determines the saturation of the blood of oxygen.
• Measurement of blood pressure and body temperature.
• gas monitoring.
• ECG in three standard leads,
• Measure blood pressure and body temperature
• We monitor everything related to breathing
After the treatment of teeth is performed, we turn off the feeding of anesthesia and check the breathing and heartbeat of the child.
After which we deliver a small patient to a special rest room in which the child will gradually wake up and come to his senses next to his mother or other close relative.
After a small patient comes to your senses, you can go home.